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The Safety and Efficacy of an extract of Garcinia Cambogia – A Literature Review *
By Sidney J. Stohs, PhD, Harry G. Preuss, MD, Sunny E. Ohia, PhD, Gilbert R. Kaats, PhD, Carl L. Keen, PhD, Lonnie D. Williams, PhD, and George A. Burdock, PhD
“The dried fruit rind of Garcinia Cambodia is used extensively for culinary purposes in Asian countries, where it has been consumed for centuries without harmful effects. It possesses a distinct sweet and sour taste, which it imparts to foods, and when added to foods has been reported to make them more filling and satisfying. (7,10)”
“The first studies involving the effects an extract of Garcinia Cambodia on lipid metabolism were conducted in the 1970s. (14-16)”
“Various animal (11-13,17-21) and human (22-27) studies have been conducted on the safety of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia. In summary, no serious or significant untoward effects were reported in any of those studies.”
“All reported effects were comparable to placebo-treated animals and human subjects. Dose-dependent studies in animals by Ohia et al. assessed acute oral toxicity, as well as acute dermal toxicity, primary dermal irritation, and primary eye irritation. (11) No gross toxicological findings were observed, and the authors concluded that the extract of Garcinia Cambodia is safe under the experimental conditions employed. In subchronic (90 day) toxicity studies in rats treated with various doses of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia, Shara et al. did not observe any significant changes in organ histopathology, hepatic or testicular lipid peroxidation, or DNA fragmentation. (12)”
“Furthermore, an extract of Garcinia Cambodia. produced no changes in hematology or clinical chemistry as compared to control animals. (13)
The safety of the potassium/calcium salt of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia. was assessed in 2-generation reproductive toxicity (19) and developmental toxicity (20) studies in male and female rats. The feeding of up to 10,000 ppm (parts per million) of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia. in the diet did not affect reproductive performance in either sex based on fertility and mating, sexual maturity, gestation, parturition, litter size, or offspring development.”
“Furthermore, no evidence of maternal toxicity or evidence of fetal soft tissue, skeletal, or external abnormalities were noted. The extract of Garcinia Cambodia was not teratogenic at these experimental conditions.”
“In another study, the effect of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation was assessed in male Zucker rats over a period of 7 weeks. (21) Compared to control animals, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl formation, and protein tyrosine nitration (markers of oxidative stress) were significantly lower in the kidney and liver of rats given an extract ofGarcinia Cambodia. Levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (markers of inflammation) were lower in plasma as compared to control animals. Furthermore, fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides, as well as body weights and food intake, were lower in an extract of Garcinia Cambodia – treated animals as compared to controls. Insulin resistance did not develop in an extract of Garcinia Cambodia – supplemented animals but did develop in the controls. (21)”
“In experimental animal studies at up to 25 times the human equivalency dose of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia, there have been no reports of hepatotoxicity or other adverse effects.”
“An an extract of Garcinia Cambodia dose of 2500 mg/kg, equivalent to 150,000 mg in a 60 kg individual, was without adverse effects, including hepatotoxicity or testicular toxicity, in the test animals. (11-13)”
“An excellent summary of the results of 15 Garcinia Cambodia human clinical studies has been provided by Soni et al.26 and Downs et al. (27). Of these studies, 14 of them were double-blind and placebocontrolled, and one was a single-arm, open trial. Over 750 total subjects were involved in these studies. No significant adverse effects were reported in any of these studies following treatment with an extract of Garcinia Cambodia. No pathologic or clinically significant changes in hematologic assays or blood chemistries, including liver enzymes, were observed. These authors concluded that an extract of Garcinia Cambodia at levels up to 2800 mg/day were safe for human consumption. “
“Furthermore, for several individuals with modestly elevated enzyme levels, upon receiving an extract of Garcinia Cambodia these enzymes returned to within the normal range. In addition, in an in vitro protein glycation (glycosylation) system, Bousova et al. demonstrated that an extract of Garcinia Cambodia decreased the formation of glycation products, again suggesting a protective role for an extract of Garcinia Cambodia. (33) Glycation is a process associated with the pathogenesis
of diabetic complications, as well as aging.”
“The ability of orally-administered an extract of Garcinia Cambodia to promote weight loss and contain body weight gain in experimental animals has been demonstrated in various studies, (11-21) beginning as early as 1971. (14) “
“The common observation throughout these diverse studies is that an extract of Garcinia Cambodia administration results in weight loss and/or retards body weight gain (with no significant adverse effects).”
“As stated previously, in-depth reviews of the efficacy of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia in weight loss and weight management involving human clinical trials have been published by Soni et al.26 and Downs et al. (27) “
“Eleven studies assessed the effects of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia on weight loss, with most demonstrating a statistically significant effect.”
“Several mechanisms of action have been shown to be involved with respect to the weight loss/weight management effects of Garcinia Cambodia. The ability of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase may be the primary mechanism. (26-28)”
“The primary mechanism of an extract of Garcinia Cambodia is believed to involve the inhibition of fat synthesis. (39)”
“Several other mechanisms may also be involved. For example, Ohia et al. have shown that an extract of Garcinia Cambodia inhibits serotonin uptake in isolated rat brain cortical slices in a manner similar to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), (11) and this action may therefore constitute the mechanism whereby an extract of Garcinia Cambodia suppresses appetite.”
Summary and Conclusions
“An ever increasing number of well-designed and appropriately controlled studies in animals and humans have indicated that an extract of Garcinia Cambodia is both safe and efficacious.”
*The actual document was headed: “Safety and Efficacy of Hydroxycitric Acid derived from Garcinia Cambodia – A Literature Review” . Hydroxycitric Acid is an extract and the main active ingredient of Garcinia Cambodia and for simplicity sake we refer to it throughout the document as “an extract of Garcinia Cambodia”.
1 to 6 refers to studies done on a competing product.
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